I was born in Gibraltar and raised in Manchester, England. After leaving school, I spent several years as a backpacker in Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia and Latin America. This background has led to a lifelong interest in international affairs and, in particular, the problems of the developing world.

At the age of 30, I enrolled as a mature student at Manchester Polytechnic (now Manchester Metropolitan University) and graduated with a first-class honours degree in Psychology. I then received an MPhil in History and Philosophy of Science from the University of Cambridge and a PhD in Psychology from York University in Toronto, Canada. I was also an exchange student at the Karl Marx University in Leipzig in what was then the German Democratic Republic. On complerting my studies, I taught at Oglethorpe University in Atlanta, USA and University College Dublin in Ireland before taking early retirement.

My PhD supervisor was Kurt Danziger who grew up in South Africa and was head of the psychology department at the University of Cape Town until his public opposition to apartheid forced him to leave. He was subsequently banned from entering the country until the political system changed. It was through him that I began to make contacts in South Africa and I have had a close connection with the country ever since.

My research interests are in the history, philosophy and sociology of psychology. I am particularly interested in the social implications of psychological theory.

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